|photo by Daniel Ibañez (CNA)|
originally published on September 22, 2016 at http://www.catholicnewsagency.com/column/a-sacred-dream-3618/
By Paul Badde
It was a single word that brought about the decisive split between the Eastern and Western churches which appeared in May 581, at the Council of Toledo, when the bishops of the Visigoth kingdom added the Latin word "filioque" to the – then 200 year old – Catholic creed of the Council of Nicea-Constantinople. In English, the word means: "and the Son". Ever since that day, Christians of the West pray in their creed: "We believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the giver of life, who proceeds from the Father and the Son", whereas in the Eastern Churches to this day they pray: "We believe in the Holy spirit, the Lord, the giver of life, who proceeds from the Father". This addition first attained the rank of dogma under Pope Benedict VIII, and then again in 1215, by which time alienation between East and West had substantially increased.
However, it was but this single word that became both a stumbling block and a milestone in the separation process between the Eastern and Western Church. Thousands upon thousands of highly erudite words only further deepened the rift and never could heal it.
And now, on Sept 18, under the radar of all news channels, a single image brought the Eastern and Western Church together in a way that arguably has never happened before. On this Sunday, in the small town of Manoppello in the Abruzzi mountains, 70 Orthodox bishops celebrated, together with two cardinals and many Roman Catholic bishops and clergymen, the Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom before the image of the "Holy Face". The holy veil had been hidden for more than 300 years in a side chapel of St Michael's Church, until, after the great earthquake of 1915, it was publicly displayed for thirst time again, in the year 1923, over the main altar of a newly constructed building, where it can be visited and adored every day.
Now, ten years after the visit Pope Benedict XVI. on 1 September 2006, this visit of a mixed Orthodox synod, together with their Latin brothers, marked a most significant event in the process of re-discovery of this mysterious, original icon of Christ. It had long been worshiped in Constantinople as "Hagion Mandylion", and later in Rome as "Sanctissimum Sudarium", before it was also given the name of "Sancta Veronica Ierosolymitana".
|Archbishop Forte, Cardinal Kurt Koch, Cardinal Leonardo Sandri (photo by Daniel Ibañez - CNA)|
Now, there were metropolitans and bishops of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople (from Finland, Estonia, Crete, Patmos, Malta, Great Britain, America, Australia, the Exarchate of the Philippines, from Europe and from Mount Athos) and patriarchs, metropolitans and archbishops of Alexandria, Antioch, Damascus, Jerusalem, the autonomous Church of Mount Sinai, and the Orthodox churches of Russia, Georgia, Serbia, Cyprus, Romania, Greece Poland, Albania, Czech Republic and Slovakia, which came before the Holy Face and celebrated the Eucharist. Only the Bulgarian Church had sent no representative. The antiphons of the wonderful liturgy were in Italian, Russian, Greek, English, Romanian and French.
In his homily, given in English, Metropolitan Job Getcha of Telmessos, who headed the service as representative of the Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew of Constantinople, praised the "image of Christ, not made by human hand" of Manoppello. He pointed out that – according to some scholars – the Image is identical with that of the Soudarion from the Gospel of the Resurrection according to John, while another tradition holds that a certain Veronica wiped the face of Jesus with this veil on his way to the Cross, though she is not mentioned in the canonical Gospels.
|Metropolitan Job Getcha of Telmessos (photo by Daniel Ibañez -CNA)|
Archbishop Bruno Forte from nearby Chieti knows that neither bloodstains nor any residue of paint can be found in the veil. It had been his idea and initiative to bring the bishops before the face of Christ, which he likes to praise as the "North Star of Christendom". He invited the group to Manoppello and had given the visitors a scholarly introduction on the bus trip from his diocesan town of Chieti to Manoppello.
In Chieti, the pilgrims had all participated in the 14th General Assembly of a joint International Commission for Theological dialogue between Catholics and Orthodox. They had discussed a document entitled "Towards a common understanding of synodality and primacy in the service of the unity of the Church". It was a debate that began in the previous plenary meeting in the Jordanian capital Amman in 2014 and was continued in 2015 in Rome. The Commission is the official organ of the theological dialogue between Catholics and Orthodox, founded in 1979, which unites 14 autocephalous Orthodox churches, each represented by two theologians who are mostly bishops, together with Catholic representatives. And now the same group practically traced, as a synodal pilgrimage, that first spectacular step towards the face of Christ that Benedict XVI undertook ten years ago, against much resistance, the first pope to do so after more than 400 years.
His successor Pope Francis later - on Nov 30, 2014 flying from Istanbul back to Rome - told journalists travelling with him: "Be careful: the Church does not have a light of its own. She needs to gaze upon Jesus Christ! On that path, we must move forward courageously." And following on this path, the Divine Liturgy before the Divine Face this Sunday became a milestone of reconciliation on the way to unity. Heavy rainfall had been announced. But only a few drops ended up falling.
|photo by Paul Badde|
"Pray for the Christians in the Middle East as you pray before the Holy Face. They are suffering unspeakably", an Oriental bishop said right after the final blessing to the German sister Petra-Maria Steiner, who introduces countless pilgrims to the mystery of the light of this image in Manoppello. Earlier, at the conclusion of the celebration, Anatoliy Grytskiv, Protopresbyter of Chieti, had hailed the "miracle" of the encounter in a passionate summary in Italian.
Whereto from here? "We continue approaching the face of Christ," Cardinal Kurt Koch told CNA outside the main entrance of the Basilica after the celebration. "Probably only in view of the face of the Redeemer may unity come about. But surely it will be difficult. After all this is like a divorce, after you have grown apart – it is hard to get back together. In this case, however, a thousand years of separation are standing between us."
"Yes, but fortunately it is said in the Scriptures: A thousand years are like a day with the Lord", Sister Petra-Maria responded, with a smile, to the sober skepticism of the Cardinal. "Perhaps now the new day of unity arises. With God, nothing is impossible. Perhaps today we have seen the dawn of this new day. This new beginning is as thin and delicate as the Veil of the Volto Santo."
Were it so, the image of Christ would indeed have briefly bridged that abyss on this Sunday, an abyss carved out, like a primeval river, by the countless words between East and West, a Grand Canyon into the very foundation of Christianity.
At those very depths, the holy "sudarium" might yet intervene, in a healing fashion, in the ancient Filioque controversy about that first word of separation. For if the veil, as John writes, was indeed lying in the grave of Christ, on the face of the Lord, it must also have absorbed the first breath of the Risen One - when the Spirit of God woke Jesus Christ from the dead - as that Spirit that is the Lord, the giver of life, who proceeds from the Father and the Son.
Rome, September 19, 2016
(Translation from German into English: Anian Christoph Wimmer)